Passé Antérieur (Past Anterior) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

Introduction to the verb cajoler

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The English translation of the French verb cajoler is “to cajole” or “to coax.” It is pronounced as “kah-zho-LAY.”

The word cajoler comes from the Old French word “cajoler,” meaning “to cuddle.” It is derived from the word “cajole,” which means “to deceive with flattery” and is believed to have originated from the Latin word “cavillari,” meaning “to mock.”

In everyday French, cajoler is commonly used in the Passé Antérieur tense, which is the past perfect tense. This tense is used to describe an action that was completed before another past action.

Here are three simple examples of cajoler used in the Passé Antérieur tense, with their English translations:

  1. Elle avait cajolé son frère avant qu’il ne parte en voyage.
    Translation: She had cajoled her brother before he left on his trip.

  2. Ils avaient cajolé leur chien jusqu’à ce qu’il se calme.
    Translation: They had coaxed their dog until he calmed down.

  3. J’avais cajolé mon patron pour qu’il m’accorde une augmentation.
    Translation: I had coaxed my boss in order to get a raise.

Table of the Passé Antérieur (Past Anterior) Tense Conjugation of cajoler

Pronoun Conjugation Short Example English Translation
je j’eus J’eus cajolé I had cajoled
tu tu eus Tu eus cajolé You had cajoled
il il eut Il eut cajolé He had cajoled
elle elle eut Elle eut cajolé She had cajoled
on on eut On eut cajolé One had cajoled
nous nous eûmes Nous eûmes cajolé We had cajoled
vous vous eûtes Vous eûtes cajolé You had cajoled
ils ils eurent Ils eurent cajolé They had cajoled
elles elles eurent Elles eurent cajolé They had cajoled

Other Conjugations for Cajoler.

   
    Le Present (Present Tense) Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Imparfait (Imperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Passé Simple (Simple Past) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Passé Composé (Present Perfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Futur Simple (Simple Future) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Futur Proche (Near Future) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Plus-que-parfait (Pluperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Passé Antérieur (Past Anterior) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler (this article)

    Futur Antérieur (Future Anterior) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

    Subjonctif Présent (Subjunctive Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

    Subjonctif Passé (Subjunctive Past) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Subjonctif Imparfait (Subjunctive Imperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

    Subjonctif Plus-que-parfait (Subjunctive Pluperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Conditionnel Présent (Conditional Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler
   

    Conditionnel Passé (Conditional Past) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

    L’impératif Présent (Imperative Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

    L’infinitif Présent (Infinitive Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cajoler

    Struggling with French verbs or the language in general? Why not use our free French Grammar Checker – no registration required!
   

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Cajoler – About the French Passé Antérieur (Past Anterior) Tense

The French Passé Antérieur tense, often referred to as the “past anterior” in English, is a literary and formal past tense that is not commonly used in everyday spoken French. It is primarily found in written language, particularly in literature, historical texts, and formal writing. This tense is used to express actions that occurred before another action in the past, serving a similar purpose to the past perfect tense (passé composé) in English.

NOTE: To take a deep dive into all the French tenses then see my article on Mastering French Tense Conjugation.

Formation of the Passé Antérieur

The Passé Antérieur is formed by using the third person singular of the passé simple (simple past) tense of the auxiliary verb “avoir” or “être,” followed by the past participle of the main verb. 
The choice between “avoir” and “être” as the auxiliary verb depends on the main verb and its transitivity or intransitivity. Here is the basic structure:
1. For verbs that use “avoir” as the auxiliary verb:
   – J’eus (I had) + past participle (of the main verb)
2. For verbs that use “être” as the auxiliary verb:
   – Je fus (I was) + past participle (of the main verb)

Common Usage Patterns

As mentioned earlier, the Passé Antérieur is primarily used in formal and literary contexts. It is rarely used in everyday spoken French, where the passé composé and imparfait are more commonly used to express past actions. Some common patterns of usage include:

Literature

The Passé Antérieur is frequently used in literature to describe past events in a succinct and formal manner.

Historical Texts

It is used in historical narratives to recount past actions and events.

Formal Writing

In formal and academic writing, the Passé Antérieur can be employed to convey events in the past with a sense of formality and precision.

Interactions with Other Tenses

The Passé Antérieur often interacts with other tenses, especially when narrating past events in a chronological order:

Passé Composé (Present Perfect)

The Passé Antérieur can be used to indicate an action that occurred before another action expressed in the passé composé. For example: “Il eut terminé son travail avant que je ne sois arrivé.” (He had finished his work before I arrived).

Imparfait (Imperfect)

The Passé Antérieur may be used in conjunction with the imparfait to convey a sequence of past actions. For instance: “Elle arriva après que nous eûmes commencé.” (She arrived after we had started).

Futur Antérieur (Future Perfect)

In the context of storytelling or narration, the Passé Antérieur can be used to describe events that happened before a future action expressed in the futur antérieur. For example: “Il partira après qu’il aura fini.” (He will leave after he has finished).

Summary

Passé Antérieur is a formal past tense used in written language and literary contexts to describe actions that occurred before another action in the past. It is not commonly used in everyday spoken French where you should instead use the passé composé and imparfait for discussing past events.

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