Introduction to the verb cloner
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The English translation of the French verb cloner is “to clone.” It is pronounced as “kloh-neh” in the infinitive form.
Cloner is a borrowing from the English word “clone,” which ultimately comes from the Greek word “klōn,” meaning “twig” or “branch.” It entered the French language in the late 20th century and is most often used in the scientific and technological fields.
In the Passé Composé tense, cloner is conjugated with the auxiliary verb “avoir” and the past participle “cloné.” It is used to indicate an action that was completed in the past.
Here are three simple examples of cloner in the Passé Composé tense:
- Les scientifiques ont cloné un mouton en 1996. (The scientists cloned a sheep in 1996.)
- Nous avons cloné des cellules pour notre expérience. (We cloned cells for our experiment.)
- Les chercheurs ont cloné un gène pour étudier son fonctionnement. (The researchers cloned a gene to study its function.)
Table of the Passé Composé (Present Perfect) Tense Conjugation of cloner
||J’ai cloné le fichier.
||I cloned the file.
||Tu as cloné l’image.
||You cloned the image.
||Il a cloné la plante.
||He cloned the plant.
||Elle a cloné l’ADN.
||She cloned the DNA.
||On a cloné le disque dur.
||We cloned the hard drive.
||Nous avons cloné le système.
||We cloned the system.
||Vous avez cloné la clé.
||You cloned the key.
||Ils ont cloné le document.
||They cloned the document.
||Elles ont cloné l’animal.
||They cloned the animal.
Other Conjugations for Cloner.
Le Present (Present Tense) Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Imparfait (Imperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Passé Simple (Simple Past) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Passé Composé (Present Perfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner (this article)
Futur Simple (Simple Future) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Futur Proche (Near Future) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Plus-que-parfait (Pluperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Passé Antérieur (Past Anterior) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Futur Antérieur (Future Anterior) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Subjonctif Présent (Subjunctive Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Subjonctif Passé (Subjunctive Past) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Subjonctif Imparfait (Subjunctive Imperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Subjonctif Plus-que-parfait (Subjunctive Pluperfect) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Conditionnel Présent (Conditional Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
Conditionnel Passé (Conditional Past) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
L’impératif Présent (Imperative Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
L’infinitif Présent (Infinitive Present) Tense Conjugation of the French Verb cloner
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Cloner – About the French Passé Composé (Present Perfect) Tense
The French Passé Composé is a compound tense used to express actions or events that have been completed in the past. It is one of the most common past tenses in the French language and is typically used in everyday conversation to describe actions that occurred at a specific point in the past. The Passé Composé is constructed using an auxiliary verb (either “être” or “avoir”) and a past participle.
Formation of the Passé Composé
Set the auxiliary verb with either
“être” – used with a select group of verbs (mostly intransitive verbs of motion, reflexive verbs, and some others) or
“avoir” – used with most other verbs.
Conjugate the auxiliary verb
If using “être,” you must conjugate it in the present tense according to the subject of the sentence.
Je suis, Tu es, Il est, Nous sommes, Vous êtes, Ils sont
If using “avoir,” conjugate it according to the subject as well:
J’ai, Tu as, Elle a, Nous avons, Vous avez, Ils ont.
Add the past participle
For regular -er verbs, remove the -er ending and add -é (e.g., “parler” becomes “parlé”).
For regular -ir verbs, remove the -ir ending and add -i (e.g., “finir” becomes “fini”).
For regular -re verbs, remove the -re ending and add -u (e.g., “vendre” becomes “vendu”).
For irregular verbs, you’ll need to learn the past participles individually, as they don’t follow a regular pattern.
Common everyday usage patterns
Narrating Past Events
The Passé Composé is used to talk about specific actions or events that took place in the past. For example: “Hier, j’ai mangé une pizza” (Yesterday, I ate a pizza).
When describing a series of actions in the past, the Passé Composé is used. For example: “D’abord, je me suis réveillé, puis je suis allé travailler” (First, I woke up, then I went to work).
Describing Completed Actions
It’s used to emphasize that an action has been completed, often with a specific time reference. For example: “Elle a terminé son travail à 18 heures” (She finished her work at 6 p.m.).
Interactions with other tenses
The Passé Composé is often used in conjunction with the imperfect tense when telling a story or describing past events. The Passé Composé is used for specific actions that occurred, while the imperfect is used for background information or ongoing actions.
For example: “Il pleuvait quand j’ai sorti mon parapluie” (It was raining when I took out my umbrella).
Conditional and Future Tenses
The Passé Composé is used as a reference point in complex sentences to establish the sequence of events in relation to future or conditional actions.
For example: “Quand il est arrivé, je lui ai donné ton message” (When he arrived, I gave him your message).
The French Passé Composé is an essential tense for talking about completed actions in the past in everyday conversation. It’s important to master the choice of auxiliary verb and the past participle conjugation for various verbs to use it effectively.
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